Ecology – development advice

Grass in focus in foreground, grassland out of focus in background

At Oakley Ecology we deal with a vast array of ecology queries from land and property developers. The purpose of this post is to highlight some frequently asked questions and provide some quick responses that we feel will give you the best advice available.

  • The local authority have asked me to provide an ecology report. What is this and when can it be completed?

Ecology reporting can take many forms and it is likely that the Local Planning Authority (LPA) have asked that you provide a baseline ecology report that supports your application, that gives confidence that impacts to nature conservation have been considered and that appropriate actions have been put in place to reduce impacts. They may have also requested you show that the development seeks to provide a net increase in baseline ecological conditions.

Baseline ecology surveys and reports can be completed at any time of the year and will be either a Preliminary Ecological Appraisal (PEA), Extended phase 1 habitat survey or ecological impact assessment (EcIA). The format of the report will be governed by the size of the development and locality to sensitive habitat features.

  • How much do baseline surveys cost?

Baseline surveys such as those mentioned above are costed according to the time taken to complete a site survey, desk study and written technical report. On average a site survey will take anywhere from 2-5hrs depending on distance and size of the site and written aspects anywhere from 10 to 40 hours depending on the level of impact anticipated by the development. At Oakley Ecology we offer a standard hourly rate of £35.00 for all our consultants which makes us one of the most competitive ecology consultants in the South East. For small developments costs are generally between £400-650 and larger developments £700-1500. We can also agree fixed fees for clients wanting to work to specific budgets and these are best discussed through

  • How long will ecology surveys and reporting take?

Once all fees are agreed, to avoid any hidden costs, we usually arrange to visit your site within a week of communication. Once the site survey has been completed we aim to deliver reports within 10 working days however smaller reports often take as little as 5 working days.

  • What are the hidden costs?

One thing to remember when needing ecology support for your development is the potential for further survey work. If through baseline ecology reporting sensitive habitats for protected or notable species are discovered further support will be required in order to satisfy LPA concerns. Further work could be for instance surveys for bats, amphibians, birds, reptiles or even hedgehogs. What we aim to offer at Oakley Ecology is clear fees and understanding to our clients so you are not surprised by the requirement for more work. If you like one of our ecologists will walk you through site surveys and show you exactly what is required and when. If you have any concerns please get in touch, we aim to give free help and support to guide your decision making, and if that results in the protection of ecology and the loss of work for us, we are more than happy.


Surveying for otters Lutra lutra

It’s been a busy few weeks at Oakley Ecology, with the end of seasonal surveys and a move from field work, to focused client engagement and delivery of written assessments.


This week we want to share with you a typical otter survey. Our otter survey methods follow standard survey methods, developed and published by Paul Chanin, a mammal ecologist who developed the survey methods for the first widespread otter surveys in the UK. His collaborated methods are widely used today by UK ecologists as standardised techniques for searching for and ultimately determining the use of water bodies by otters.

The main objectives to any otter survey are to identify whether otters use a waterbody and, if so, to what extent; whether use be occasional, for commuting or foraging purposes or for more frequent use with resting places present. In order to do this we need to look for evidence and this comes from searching for clues that help to build up an assessment and enables a true reflection on the suitability and functionality of the habitats present. This information can then either be used in population research and assessment or for developing landscape opportunities to encourage the spread of otters, for example, by identifying negative influences to dispersal, such as barriers to movement.

Firstly, through discussion with our clients and information obtained about the nature of the development, we identify the need for an otter survey. This may be because the development directly impacts a waterbody, such as a river, stream, lake or wetland or even because the development is likely to have an indirect impact on otter through increased noise, lighting or vibration during and after construction.

The second stage of the assessment is to determine the use of a waterbody by otters and this follows the standard methods as mentioned above. Surveys are typically completed between May and September, however survey seasons can be extended if weather conditions allow, for example, if there are no heavy periods of rain through October which would remove signs of use, survey could be completed. Surveys are avoided during and directly after any rainfall event as these will remove fields signs.

Maps are produced for the waterbodies affected by the development and will include wider search areas to ensure sufficient information is gathered giving a true interpretation of the results captured. Waterbodies are walked by our experienced ecologists and the following information is recorded:

  • Locations of otter spraints (faeces) – often located on prominent features within the waterbody or on the banks, features like weirs, bridges, rocks, berms or tree roots
  • Location of slides and tracks – slides are formed when otters frequently slip into the water, using the same route. Tracks can be found on in-channel features like berms, sand banks, tree roots as well as on bareground within 10m of the waterbody.
  • Location of otter tarring – where otters mark territory with faeces higher up the bank where prominent features aren’t present.; features include grass, loose earth and rocks.
  • Otter evidence can include urine staining and anal secretions (can be known as otter jelly)
  • Location of any day resting places – worn areas of grass or other vegetation on or close to the bank
  • Location of otter holts or other large entrances along the waterbody.

All information is mapped and a picture forms on the otter use of the waterbody. This information can then be used to determine to what extent the development will impact, if it does at all, on the local otter population.

If you are thinking of developing land close to a waterbody and want to ensure the impacts on otters are assessed appropriately, get in touch with Oakley Ecology, we will pull together a free check of local information for you.

Do I need a reptile survey?

It can be confusing and at times frustrating to be a developer, especially when it comes to ecology. Missing survey windows for species is a good example of these frustrations, but take it from us, you are not alone. Luckily Oakley Ecology are here to help and we can guide you through any survey requirements, there is always work that can be done to move your projects forward despite missing a survey window.

slow worm

Surveys for reptiles are an example, frequently missed by landowners. Typically these surveys are completed between March and October, which is, by ecology survey standards, a long survey window however is dependent on weather conditions that can provide limitations.

The reason for missing reptile or other wildlife surveys, within a calendar year, often comes down to a number of factors. The lack of understanding of the requirements of surveys, poor communication between ecologists and developers or commonly surveys are missed due to the time of year initial baseline surveys are conducted. Any baseline surveys conducted after August have a greater potential of missing the reptile survey window.

So what can be done to ensure you don’t miss a survey window?

Your first port of call should be to get in touch with Oakley Ecology at the start of your project or when first understanding that ecology support will be required. We will be able to talk you through the process of providing you with ecology support and explain what may or may not be required in order to satisfy your planning or habitat improvement needs. You can also familiarise yourself with our survey calendar to see when the key survey windows are.

Our baseline surveys, whether it be a walkover survey, Preliminary Ecological Appraisal (PEA) or an Ecological Impact Assessment (EcIA) will provide you with the information you require to determine the need for additional surveys. It is best to get these survey done between October and March in order for us to plan additional survey work, when the next survey windows for species open. We can however complete baseline surveys throughout the year but whenever you choose to get in touch we will always provide free advice to help you plan your project schedules.